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Technical Description

First draft

Haneul Jang

Prof. Voisard

March 20, 2019

The lighter

What is a lighter?

It is a portable device designed to light a fire. Contrary to popular belief, the lighter’s history is older than a match. The first lighter was invented in 1823 by German chemist Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner. The principle is that zinc is added to sulfuric acid, which goes away at zinc and produces hydrogen gas. When this hydrogen gas touched the fine platinum, the platinum was  catalyzed and burned. It wasn’t popular enough to have such a complex structure, but it was much more uncomfortable than the usual flint stone. And it was so big and heavy that it had to be turned on with both hands, and there were many small shortcomings such as brittle ones. Most of all, it was far from popularizing that we had to use sulfuric acid, a dangerous substance. In 1903, Austrian scientist Carl Are von Welsbach created a miniature flint design, which was used by Ronson to produce the first flint lighter, Post O Liter, in 1910. The lighter was very popular because it was small and safe and hasn’t changed much of its operation yet.

How does a lighter work?

Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, and to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice that meters the butane gas as it escapes. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, and flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas. The spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released.

What is the component of the lighter?

Adjusting wheel, Nozzle, Spark wheel, Wick, Stone and Fuel space. Wick is that A candle wick is usually a braided cotton that holds the flame of an oil lamp or candle. A candle wick works by capillary action, conveying (“wicking”) the fuel to the flame. When the liquid fuel, typically melted candle wax, reaches the flame it then vaporizes and combusts. The candle wick influences how the candle burns. Important characteristics of the wick include diameter, stiffness, fire-resistance, and tethering. And stone is that When you roll a round spark wheel on the lighter body to turn on the light, the stone beneath the wheel turns together, causing friction. Friction with stone splashes sparks above the firing point to increase the temperature.

How does a lighter work?

The modern lighter doesn’t store hydrogen, but butane. It initially stored naphtha, until we realized that butane produces a more controlled flame and exudes the least amount of unpleasant odor. Butane in a lighter is pressurized and stored, which causes it to exist as a liquid. When depressurized, the liquid will immediately vaporize to form gaseous butane. The gaseous butane, being flammable, will catch fire even when incited by the slightest of sparks.

The metallic wheel on the lighter, when pushed down by one’s thumb, will rub against the ferrocerium to produce a scorching spark. Simultaneously, a valve opens, from which the butane is released, which is vaporized as soon as it exits the container. The spark is produced just above the valve, which then simply ignites the plume of gas. The result is an ovate, tranquil flame.

Conclusion

Fire is essential today. Lighters are necessary for humans no matter how fast technology develops and changes. And now there are so many different kinds of lighters. In the past, there were only oil lighters, but the types and price ranges of modern times have become so diverse that there are also hundreds of Dollars and over a million won lighter like Dupont. The most famous lighter brand, Zippo, costs tens to hundreds of dollars. Some rare items, such as limited-order ones, are traded at high premium prices, and some specialize in collecting only Zippo lighters. A lighter is no longer just a tool to light. The lighter will be a trend like clothes and shoes.

Final Draft

Haneul Jang

Prof. Voisard

March 20, 2019

The lighter

What is a lighter?

(Figure 1. normal lighter)

It is a portable device designed to light a fire. Contrary to popular belief, the lighter’s history is older than a match. The first lighter was invented in 1823 by German chemist Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner. The principle is that zinc is added to sulfuric acid, which goes away at zinc and produces hydrogen gas. When this hydrogen gas touched the fine platinum, the platinum was  catalyzed and burned. It wasn’t popular enough to have such a complex structure, but it was much more uncomfortable than the usual flint stone. And it was so big and heavy that it had to be turned on with both hands, and there were many small shortcomings such as brittle ones. Most of all, it was far from popularizing that we had to use sulfuric acid, a dangerous substance. In 1903, Austrian scientist Carl Are von Welsbach created a miniature flint design, which was used by Ronson to produce the first flint lighter, Post O Liter, in 1910. The lighter was very popular because it was small and safe and hasn’t changed much of its operation yet.

How does a lighter work?

Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, and to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice that meters the butane gas as it escapes. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, and flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas. The spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released.

What is the component of the lighter?

(Figure 2. inner parts of the lighter)

Adjusting wheel, Nozzle, Spark wheel, Wick, Stone and Fuel space. Wick is that A candle wick is usually a braided cotton that holds the flame of an oil lamp or candle. A candle wick works by capillary action, conveying (“wicking”) the fuel to the flame. When the liquid fuel, typically melted candle wax, reaches the flame it then vaporizes and combusts. The candle wick influences how the candle burns. Important characteristics of the wick include diameter, stiffness, fire-resistance, and tethering. And stone is that When you roll a round spark wheel on the lighter body to turn on the light, the stone beneath the wheel turns together, causing friction. Friction with stone splashes sparks above the firing point to increase the temperature.

How does a lighter work?

The modern lighter doesn’t store hydrogen, but butane. It initially stored naphtha, until we realized that butane produces a more controlled flame and exudes the least amount of unpleasant odor. Butane in a lighter is pressurized and stored, which causes it to exist as a liquid. When depressurized, the liquid will immediately vaporize to form gaseous butane. The gaseous butane, being flammable, will catch fire even when incited by the slightest of sparks.

The metallic wheel on the lighter, when pushed down by one’s thumb, will rub against the ferrocerium to produce a scorching spark. Simultaneously, a valve opens, from which the butane is released, which is vaporized as soon as it exits the container. The spark is produced just above the valve, which then simply ignites the plume of gas. The result is an ovate, tranquil flame.

Conclusion

(Figure 3. zippo lighter)

Fire is essential today. Lighters are necessary for humans no matter how fast technology develops and changes. And now there are so many different kinds of lighters. In the past, there were only oil lighters, but the types and price ranges of modern times have become so diverse that there are also hundreds of Dollars and over a million won lighter like Dupont. The most famous lighter brand, Zippo, costs tens to hundreds of dollars. Some rare items, such as limited-order ones, are traded at high premium prices, and some specialize in collecting only Zippo lighters. A lighter is no longer just a tool to light. The lighter will be a trend like clothes and shoes.

Reference

  1. Roald Hoffmann. “Roald Hoffmann, “Dobereiner’s Feuerzeug”, American Scientist, 86, no.4(August 1998). American scientist.org. dol:10.1511/1998.4.326. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
  2. Klaus Reinhardt, Herwig Winkler “Cerium Mischmetal”, 15 June 2000
  3.  “The Early History of Zippo: The Birth of the Zippo Lighter”. Lightermall.com. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
  4. “Dutch Ronson Collector’s Club, “History of the Ronson Lighter””. Finepipes.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  5.  Jason Virga (2006). “The Laureate Lighter – A chronological history of the amazing invention”. Bugstores.com. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  6.  Lukas Hermsmeier (3 January 2016). “Zippo, die Geschichte des legendären Sturmfeuerzeugs”[Zippo, the story of the legendary windproof ligthers]. www.welt.de (in German). Welt. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  7. Joe Mandak (5 June 2012). “Zippo produces 500 millionth lighter”usatoday30.usatoday.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2017-11-01. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  8. p. 28 Rottman, Gordon L. & Anderson, Duncan The US Army in the Vietnam War 1965–73 Osprey Publishing, 2008
  9. p. 530 Rubin, Allen; Weiss, Eugenia L. & Coll, Jose E. Handbook of Military Social Work John Wiley & Sons 27/11/2012
  10. Sherry Buchanan (2007). Vietnam Zippos: American Soldiers’ Engravings and Stories (1965-1973). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226078281.

Self-assessment

            When I did this project, I chose glasses. However, it was too hard to explain glasses when looking into the data. So I changed into a lighter. I thought it would be easier for the lighter to explain. This project was relatively easier than other projects. Because I had to imagine and design another project, but this project was needed a technical explanation. The most difficult part was to explain how the lighter worked. I searched the internet a lot, but there was no place that came out exactly about how it worked. And all the parts in it have different names. It took longer to find the data than other projects. Searching for this data, I didn’t know that lighter had such a long history. This is older than a match. If I hadn’t written on this topic, I wouldn’t have known this. This project requires professional knowledge and must collect various materials. I also collected many sites and various information. After reading my technical description, the professor said that there was too little reference. I haven’t written much reference in this writing. I didn’t know how to write references in APA style. And if I had collected information from other sites, of course I should have used references, but I didn’t write them. It was my mistake. I’ve searched a lot for how to use APA style. It is still difficult. Choosing the topic and writing in APA style seems to have been the hardest part of this semester.

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